CIE發布關於藍光危害的立場聲明

 

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CIE Position Statement on the Blue Light Hazard

(April, 2019)

 

CIE關於光危害的立聲明

2019年4月

There have been a number of reports in the media about the risk to human health following exposure to light from sources such as light emitting diodes (LEDs), referring to the term “blue light hazard” (BLH). This term has been inaccurately used to represent the risk of actual eye damage and the influence on general well-being.

很多媒體報導聲稱發光二極體(LED)等光源的使用會對人體健康造成危害,這類危害一般稱為“藍光危害(BLH)”,泛指實際的眼損傷風險及對一般健康狀態的影響。

The term “blue light hazard” should only be used when considering the photochemical risk to the retinal tissues of the eye (technically referred to as “photomaculopathy”), usually associated with staring into bright sources, such as the sun or welding arcs. “Blue” is included in the term because the risk of photochemical injury is wavelength-dependent, peaking in the blue part of the optical radiation spectrum around 435 nm to 440 nm. The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) have published the “blue light hazard function”, a wavelength-dependent weighting function, and guideline exposure limits [1]. The CIE has standardized this function as part of the CIE S 009:2002 "Photobiological safety of lamps and lamp systems", now published as IEC 62471:2006/CIE S 009:2002 [2]. There is no evidence in humans of any adverse health effects from occasional exposure to optical radiation at the exposure limits.

術語“藍光危害”僅在考慮到眼視網膜組織的光化學風險(技術上稱為“光斑病變”)時使用,通常與凝視陽光或焊接電弧等明亮光源有關。術語中包括“藍光”,因為光化學損傷的風險取決於波長,並在光譜位於435 nm到440 nm的藍光波段達到峰值。國際非電離輻射防護委員會(ICNIRP)發佈了“藍光危害函數”並規定了波長相關加權函數和指導性曝光極限[1]。CIE已將此函數標準化,並作為CIE S 009:2002“燈和燈系統的光生物安全”的一部分,現發佈為IEC/CIE 62471:2006[2]。沒有任何證據表明人體偶爾暴露在限值範圍內的光輻射下會對健康產生任何不利影響。

Lamps, including LEDs, which emit primarily white light will usually contain a proportion of light at wavelengths that are relevant to the assessment of the blue light hazard. Lamps that are “cooler”, or attributed to a high colour temperature, are likely to contain a higher proportion of blue light than sources that are “warmer” or of a lower colour temperature. Indeed the blue light hazard exposure limit from incandescent and LED lamps for general lighting is similar for similar colour temperatures. Practical assessments have shown that the blue light hazard exposure limits are not exceeded under all reasonably foreseeable use conditions. Furthermore, the exposure levels are often lower than experienced from viewing a blue sky.

LED等白光燈具,通常會包含與藍光危害相關的光。看起來“偏冷光”的燈或高色溫的燈,相對於“偏暖光”或低色溫的燈而言,可能包含更多藍光成分。常規照明中白熾燈和LED燈中,相同色溫的燈具其藍光危害曝光極限是相同的。實用評估表明,在合理可預見的使用狀態下,燈具是不會超出藍光危害曝光極限的。此外,這種燈具的藍光曝光程度經常是低於觀視藍天時的曝光程度的。

It is also important to consider eye exposures in practice [3]. A number of studies have been published, with associated media coverage, which claim adverse effects from white-light sources. Most of these studies have unusual conditions, including:

對實際情況中人眼曝光程度的考慮是非常重要的[3]。已有大量研究和媒體報導聲稱,白光光源對人眼健康存在不利影響。這些研究大多數是基於非常規狀態,包括:

˙long-term exposure,

˙high colour temperature LEDs (i.e. a very high blue component),

˙exposures significantly in excess of the ICNIRP exposure limit,

˙fixation on the light source,

˙the use of nocturnal animal models or human cells in vitro.

˙長時間曝光

˙高色溫LED燈(藍光成分非常多)

˙顯著超出ICNIRP曝光極限的曝光

˙凝視光源

˙使用夜行動物模型或人體離體細胞

It is fundamental to appreciate that a white-light source emitting blue light at levels sufficient to approach the blue light hazard exposure limit would be extremely bright, thus producing discomfort glare, and that to stare into such sources would be considered unusual behaviour. Also, very high colour temperature lighting is perceived by most people as unpleasant and uncomfortable, particularly for lighting of homes. It is recognized that during normal behaviour, we experience transient exposures to high light levels, and may get many such exposures per day. However, accumulation of these exposures over the day will not result in the exposure limits being exceeded.

白色光源發出接近藍光危害曝光極限劑量的藍光時,發出的光會很亮,這樣就產生了令人不適的炫光。凝視這樣的光源會被認為是不正常的行為。另外,高色溫的照明對於大多數人而言都是令人不愉快和不舒服的,尤其是作為家用照明。對於行為正常的人來說,每天都會有大量時間暫時曝光在高劑量的光中。然而,在一天當中這些曝光量的積累並不會曝光超過曝光極限。

Whilst the CIE considers that the “blue light hazard” is not an issue for white-light sources used in general lighting, even for those that are blue-enriched, caution is suggested for circumstances occurring over many days with continuous exposure to optical radiation, at levels that approach the blue light hazard exposure limit. Indeed such exposure should be avoided. Such exposure is unlikely for white-light sources, but may be possible with sources that primarily emit blue light.

雖然CIE認為“藍光危害”對於一般照明中使用的白光光源甚至富含藍光成分的光源來說都不是問題,但針對多日連續暴露于接近藍光危害曝光極限的光輻射這類情況仍建議謹慎。事實上應避免這種暴露。這種曝光對於白光光源來說不太可能,但是對於主要發出藍光的光源來說則是可能的。

It should also be recognized that the use of sources emitting primarily blue light are a cause of concern for exposure to children’s eyes. Even if the blue light hazard exposure limit is not exceeded, such sources may be dazzlingly bright to youngsters. For this reason, the use of blue indicator lamps is not recommended for toys and other devices that may be viewed by children. Where blue-light sources are used in such products, the blue light hazard exposure limit should be reduced by a factor of 10. This is even more important for light sources emitting violet and deep-violet radiation.

還應認識到,使用主要發出藍光的光源導致兒童眼睛的暴露同樣需要引起顧慮。儘管沒有超過藍光曝光極限,這樣的光源對於兒童來說太亮了而會使他們感到眩暈。因此,不建議對兒童可能看到的玩具和其他設備使用藍色指示燈。如果在此類產品中使用藍光為主要光源,則藍光曝光極限應降低為十分之一。這對於發出紫光和深紫光的光源尤為重要。

There have been claims that exposure to blue light may be linked to the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Such claims are currently speculative and are not supported by the peer-reviewed literature.

有文獻稱藍光暴露可能與年齡相關性黃斑變性的風險有關。這種說法目前是推測性的,並沒有經過同行評議作支撐。

The term "blue light hazard" should not be used when referring to circadian rhythm disruption or sleep disturbance. However, the CIE recognizes that there is public concern over the non-visual influences of blue light on human health and has previously issued a position statement on this [4]. An update on this will be issued in due course taking into account, for example, the new international standard CIE S 026:2018 [5].

當提及晝夜節律紊亂或睡眠障礙時,不應使用術語“藍光危害”。不過,CIE意識到公眾存在藍光對人類健康的非視覺影響方面的擔憂,並已就此發佈了一份立場聲明[4],同時將考慮適時發佈該聲明的更新檔,例如CIE S 026:2018[5]。

 

References

参考文献

[1]  ICNIRP Guidelines on Limits of exposure to incoherent visible and infrared radiation. Health Physics. 105(1):74‐96; 2013 (available from www.icnirp.org).

[2]  IEC 62471:2006/CIE S 009:2002 Photobiological safety of lamps and lamp systems (bilingual edition) / Sécurité photobiologique des lampes et des appareils utilisant des lampes.

[3]  Sliney, D H, Bergman, R and O’Hagan, J. Photobiological Risk Classification of Lamps and Lamp Systems—History and Rationale. LEUKOS, 12:4, 213-234, 2016, DOI: 10.1080/15502724.2016.1145551.

[4]  CIE Position Statement on Non-Visual Effects of Light – Recommending Proper Light at the Proper Time, June 28, 2015         .

[5]  CIE S 026/E:2018 CIE System for Metrology of Optical Radiation for ipRGC-Influenced Responses to Light.

 

About the CIE and its Position Statements

 關於CIE及其立場聲明

The International Commission on Illumination – also known as the CIE from its French title, the Commission Internationale de l´Eclairage – is devoted to worldwide cooperation and the exchange of information on all matters relating to the science and art of light and lighting, colour and vision, photobiology and image technology.

國際照明委員會--也被稱為CIE,源自其法文名稱為“the Commission Internationale de l´Eclairage”--致力於全球合作,並就有關光與照明、顏色與視覺、光生物學與圖像技術的科學和藝術的所有事項交流溝通。

With strong technical, scientific and cultural foundations, the CIE is an independent, non-profit organization that serves member countries on a voluntary basis. Since its inception in 1913, it has been accepted as representing the best authority on the subject matter of its scope. As such the CIE is recognized by ISO as an international standardization body, publishing global standards on the fundamentals of light and lighting.

CIE擁有強大的技術、科學和文化基礎,是一個獨立的非營利組織,在自願的基礎上為成員國服務。自1913年成立以來,已被國際標準組織(ISO)認可為相關領域的最高權威。因此,CIE被國際標準組織(ISO)認可為一個國際標準化機構,發行有關光與照明基礎研究的全球標準。

CIE position statements are approved by the CIE Board of Administration, which includes the Directors of all the CIE Divisions (the bodies that carry out the scientific work of the CIE), after first ensuring agreement with the relevant CIE Technical Committees.

CIE立場聲明首先確保與相關CIE技術委員會達成一致,並經CIE董事局批准,包括所有CIE分部(執行CIE科學工作的機構)的主任。

 

For any further information please contact

CIE Central Bureau
Kathryn Nield, General Secretary
Babenbergerstraße 9/9A,
A-1010 Vienna, Austria
Phone: +43 1 714 31 87
Email: ciecb@cie.co.at
Website: http:/www.cie.co.at

 

了解更多資訊,請聯繫

CIE中央局

秘書長Kathryn Nield

地址:Babenbergerstraße 9/9A, A-1010

奧地利,維也納           

電話:+43 1 714 31 87

電子郵箱:kathryn.nield@cie.co.at

網址:http://www.cie.co.at

 

 

 

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